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A comparative evaluation was carried out by Land Use Consultants International (LUCI), New Delhi, to assess the impact and sustainability of the IGBP Programme in RWS Karkara, Jharkhand, vis-a-vis watershed Karma which was treated under the centrally sponsored River Valley Project (RVP) Scheme and watershed Mahesha which was untreated and hence taken as the control watershed . The following are some of the results of the evaluation.   

Comparative change in vegetative cover : 

Agricultural Production as a result of Rainwater Harvesting 


Increase in Cropping Intensity due to Increased Water in Wells in Karkara Village

Ground water use as a result of rainwater harvesting

The Project developed in-house a comprehensive set of 9 impact indicators for evaluation of watershed management programmes. The 9 impact indicators are 

1.Soil loss [topsoil conservation]                                                                                                                          2.Groundwater [groundwater conservation]                                                                                                                3.Height-for-age [Health, wealth, gender parity, social equity]                                                                                                                                                                 4.Consumer Durables [Wealth, Social equity]                                                                                                                                                                      5.School Attendance [Education, Gender parity]                                                                                                                                                                    6.Use and Maintenance [Sustainability, Replicability]                                                                                                                                                    7.Outsiders [Sustainability, Replicability]                                                                                                           8.Replication [Replicability]                                                                                                                                                                 9.Social Capital [Sustainability]

31 Sediment monitoring stations are equipped and operational throughout  the                        country measuring the following parameters

1.  Rainfall

2.  Water Level

3.  Sediment Concentration

4.  Velocity of Flow

5.  Relative Humidity

6.  Air Temperature

7.  Wind Speed

8.  Solar Radiation

Impact assessment of RWS Burhanpura in terms of landuse changes and changes in vegetation density was carried out using satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques in collaboration with the All India Soil And Landuse Survey (AISLUS), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India 

RWS Burhanpura was treated under the Indo-German Bilateral Project “Watershed Management”, where the Forest Department, Rajasthan was responsible for the physical soil and water conservation activities like construction of water harvesting structures, hydrological monitoring etc. especially on government lands and the local NGO Kumarappa Institute of Gram Swaraj (KIGS) focused on sustainable livelihood issues such as awareness raising, non-conventional energy, self-help promotion, vocational   training, horticulture, etc..      

Landuse/landcover classification and dynamics

The different classes of landuse/landcover in the RWS were : rainfed crop, irrigated crop, plantation/miscellaneous trees, wasteland, open forest, closed forest and water bodies.                



Fig : Landuse/Landcover of RWS Burhanpura for the periods 1995 and 2000                                                                                                 

Rainfed agricultural area, fallow land and open forests have decreased while irrigated agricultural area, plantation area and degraded forests have increased.  There has been an overall improvement in the agricultural sector while the forests mostly on public land have deteriorated from open to degraded category. Degradation of forest cover may be due to unavailability of alternate energy sources, failure of monsoons for three consecutive years or even felling and grazing. 

Out of the total 547 ha of rainfed area (1995), 173 ha has converted to irrigated agriculture, 63 ha has changed to plantation and 61 ha is currently fallow. This may be indicative of increase in water availability, more judicious use of water and consequently more awareness amongst farmers, betterment of economic conditions etc.


           PRE-TREATMENT PERIOD                          POST-TREATMENT PERIOD



Fig : Vegetation Density Maps of RWS Burhanpura (1175 HA), Sikar District Rajasthan  (1175 ha), Sikar District Rajasthan  for the periods 1995 and 2000  

There has been an overall increase in the density of vegetation. Conversion of 4 ha very low, 45 ha low, 117 ha medium, 106 ha high density classes to the very high density class have contributed to this increase of 224 ha to very high density.       

Geo-Plan: A user friendly Decision Support System for Watershed Management was developed in collaboration with the All India Soil and Land Use Survey (AISLUS), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India

Satellite remote sensing  and GIS are high-end tools that can generate and store spatial and non-spatial information and requires a certain level of technical expertise whereas decision-makers have diverse field know-how. The project has developed a customized Graphical User Interface (GUI) between the two so that once a comprehensive database is fed into the DSS, decision makers can run models of "action plans" and weigh alternatives before the final decision is made. Ideally a database should consist of information on soils , current landuse slope, costs, yields, water requirements, land ownership and infrastructure derived from satellite data, cadastral data, census data and field data. The database is updated on a regular basis and analyzed for impacts during the project as well as at the end of the project. Decision makers can then assess the impact of their decisions and use this feedback to improve upon their planning for other watersheds. GEO-PLAN has been developed in collaboration with the All India Soil and Land Use Survey (AISLUS) Remote Sensing Centre, Noida (U.P.). The pilot study area is the Representative Watershed Jaunla, Rajasthan



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